Between 18, Alabama’s coal production grew from 67,000 tons to 8.4 million tons.This growth was driven in large part by the expansion of convict leasing in the state; in Birmingham, the center of the state’s coal production, more than 25 percent of miners were leased convicts.
We are therefore very thankful to Judge Brown.” Despite Judge Brown’s plea for even-handed enforcement of the law, distrust of the criminal justice system among black Montgomery residents grew. Ray, a white man, murdered Ed Rugley, a black man, Colored Alabamian's editorial board warned, “Watch out now for the old theory of SELF-DEFENSE.” In cases where white defendants were charged with killing black people like Mr.A rural newspaper observed, “Several negroes from this section . This sentiment was shared by others in Wilson's administration; William Mc Adoo, Secretary of the Treasury, argued that segregation was necessary “to remove the causes of complaint and irritation where white women have been forced unnecessarily to sit at desks with colored men.” By the end of 1913, black employees in several federal departments had been relegated to separate or screened-off work areas and segregated lavatories and lunchrooms.In addition to physical separation from whites, black employees were appointed to menial positions or reassigned to divisions slated for elimination.Jeffries, who refused to fight black boxers, turned Johnson down and retired undefeated in 1905.Canadian boxer Tommy Burns replaced Jeffries as the heavyweight champion and, after being taunted by Johnson numerous times in previous fights, agreed to face him in an interracial match.Finally, on July 4, 1910, the anticipated showdown occurred in Reno, Nevada, in front of 20,000 spectators.Johnson retained the heavyweight title and shocked the nation when Jeffries, who had been knocked down twice, threw in the towel in the 15th round to avoid a knockout loss.These citizens were then tried and convicted, sentenced to sixty- or ninety-days hard labor plus court costs, and handed over to the mines.Employers frequently held and worked convicts well beyond their scheduled release dates since local officials had no incentive to intervene and prisoners lacked the resources and power to demand enforcement. Convicts were often chained together in ankle-deep water, working 12- to 16-hour shifts with no breaks, and surviving on fistfuls of spoiled meat and cornbread stuffed into the rags they wore for uniforms.On March 4, 2015, the Department of Justice released a comprehensive investigative report looking into police behaviors and practices within the Ferguson Police Department in Missouri.The report was in response to the shooting death of Michael Brown by former Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson. The DOJ report documented rampant and pervasive racial bias within the Ferguson Police Department.